Over the last 15 years, Peru has lost more than 125,000 ha. of forest annually with no major changes in the trend despite efforts to implement deforestation reduction strategies. Almost 100% of deforestation is caused by agriculture. Deforestation is localized mainly in the central Amazon area (Ucayali and Huánuco regions) and in the northern Amazon area (San Martin region) with overall more than 10 active forest frontiers. Each frontier presents specific socio-ecological characteristics and triggers of direct change, with rapid turnover of actors intervening over land and complex mechanisms of evolution across the various phases of the frontier consolidation. About 80% of forest loss is due to conversion to small patches of less than 5 ha. corresponding to the opening of fields for cash crops, mostly coffee and increasingly. Large scale deforestation is mostly related to oil palm expansion.  Almost 3.5 million ha of deforested land is managed by smallholders as a shifting mosaic of small patch areas of less than 5 ha composed by temporal and permanent crops, pastures, and fallow-based systems, reflecting the diversified livelihoods of family farmers (Robiglio etal., 2014).

The barriers facing the alignment of biodiversity conservation and agricultural objectives include limited knowledge of the role of agricultural mosaics and trees on farms as beneficial to both priorities and sectorial and institutional segmentation that separates agriculture from trees resources, except in the case of fruit trees, that are considered crops.

However, Peru’s NBSAP offers opportunities for increasing TonF as does Peru’s 3.2 million ha. pledge to the Bonn Challenge. The degraded landscapes identified for restoration overlap with the agricultural land-use mosaic managed by family farmers in the Amazon region. There is an increased recognition of mosaic restoration versus the landscape large scale restoration of forest, and consequently of the pivotal role of smallholders in supporting restoration processes through the establishment and management of biodiversity friendly production systems based on crops of local importance. Peru’s NDC is also supported by the TonF approach as the NDC includes measures for the agricultural sector, including shaded cocoa and coffee and its LULUCF-USCUSS includes a specific measure on agroforestry.

Activities

National stakeholder meeting in December 2019 to discuss a roadmap for framing an enabling policy and regulatory context to favour the adoption of biodiversity friendly tree-based practices.

Ongoing coordination with local stakeholders of Colpa de Loros in Ucayali to present preliminary results about the opportunities to integrate Biodiversity Friendly species in their cocoa Production systems (4 villages) and assess their capacity of producing planting material for key species to be integrated in their cocoa farms.

Ongoing coordination with MINAM-DGBD and IIAP to implement the Biodiversity Assessment Tool optional module on vertebrates in the project sampling area and planning of the activity next year

Support and advisory to a multi-sectorial effort to align policies and definitions on agroforestry to facilitate the achievement of Peru’s climate, biodiversity and restoration targets.

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Team

Valentina Robiglio

Martin Reyes

Marta Suber

Jean Valverde

Elena Borasino